@article{oai:nagoya.repo.nii.ac.jp:00013681,
author = {Yokoyama, Keiko and Yamamoto, Yuji},
issue = {10},
journal = {PLoS Computational Biology},
month = {Oct},
note = {We experimentally investigated the synchronized patterns of three people during sports activities and found that the activity corresponded to spatiotemporal patterns in rings of coupled biological oscillators derived from symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory, which is based on group theory. This theory can provide catalogs of possible generic spatiotemporal patterns irrespective of their internal models. Instead, they are simply based on the geometrical symmetries of the systems. We predicted the synchronization patterns of rings of three coupled oscillators as trajectories on the phase plane. The interactions among three people during a 3 vs. 1 ball possession task were plotted on the phase plane. We then demonstrated that two patterns conformed to two of the three patterns predicted by the theory. One of these patterns was a rotation pattern (R) in which phase differences between adjacent oscillators were almost 2π/3. The other was a partial antiphase pattern (PA) in which the two oscillators were anti-phase and the third oscillator frequency was dead. These results suggested that symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory could be used to understand synchronization phenomena among three people who communicate via perceptual information, not just physically connected systems such as slime molds, chemical reactions, and animal gaits. In addition, the skill level in human synchronization may play the role of the bifurcation parameter.},
pages = {e1002181--e1002181},
title = {Three People Can Synchronize as Coupled Oscillators during Sports Activities},
volume = {7},
year = {2011}
}